Ukraine, Denmark sign security agreement (full text)

Ukraine, Denmark sign security agreement (full text)

Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky and Danish Prime Minister Mette Frederiksen have signed an agreement on security cooperation at a meeting in Lviv.

Ukrinform provides the full text of the document published on the website of the head of state.

Agreement on security cooperation and long-term support between Ukraine and Denmark


1. Ukraine and the Government of Denmark (hereinafter “the Participants”, or “Ukraine” and “Denmark”) decide on the following:

2. Russia’s full-scale war of aggression against Ukraine has caused immense destruction and civilian casualties with monumental consequences for Ukraine, the whole of Europe and the international community. The return of war to the European continent is a stark reminder of Russia's expansionist and aggressive behaviour in direct violation of international law and the European security order.

3. Denmark reiterates its unwavering support for Ukraine’s independence, sovereignty, and territorial integrity within its internationally recognised borders as of 1991 including the territorial sea.

4. Denmark, together with the Nordic countries, immediately supported the Joint Declaration of Support for Ukraine (hereinafter the “G7 Declaration”), adopted by the Group of Seven (G7) and the EU on the margins of the NATO Summit in Vilnius. The Nordic countries, including Denmark, reiterated their support for the G7 Declaration as of 12 July 2023 and agreed to start bilateral negotiations with Ukraine on security commitments to be formalised in close coordination with G7 Allies and partners. Denmark hereby formalises its long-term bilateral security commitments to Ukraine.

5. As stated on multiple occasions, the Nordic countries stand united in bolstering Ukraine’s resilience and capacity to defend itself and remain ready to support Ukraine for as long as it takes to restore its territorial integrity within its internationally recognized borders. The Nordics are committed to lock-in support for Ukraine as it defends its sovereignty and territorial integrity, rebuilds its economy, protects its citizens, and advances its reform agenda, as it pursues its integration into the Euro-Atlantic community.

6. Recalling the long-standing diplomatic relations and friendship since Ukraine regained its independence in 1991, the Participants decide to deepen their cooperation and partnership by pursuing the long-term bilateral security commitments set forth in this Agreement, which are based on common interests in the defence of international peace and the protection of fundamental human rights and freedoms.


7. Denmark’s security commitments to Ukraine seek to complement contributions from the other participants of the G7 Declaration, including the EU and the Nordic countries. Denmark’s security commitments to Ukraine are coordinated with Allies and partners.

8. Denmark stands ready on a regular basis to consult with Ukraine on strategic matters and to align and coordinate support delivered with the purpose of bolstering Ukraine’s defensive fight against Russian aggression. Furthermore, Denmark would welcome, inter alia, regular Nordic-Ukraine strategic dialogue on the strengthening of Ukraine’s defence, resilience and reform path.

9. Denmark’s security commitments set forth in this Agreement reflect a strategic choice and involve comprehensive support to Ukraine’s inherent right of self-defence against Russia’s full-scale war of aggression and deterrence of future Russian aggression. Any extension of the security commitments will occur in dialogue between the Participants, and in coordination with Allies and partners.

10. Denmark will continue its support to Ukraine for the ten-year duration of this Agreement.

11. Denmark will provide long-term military support to Ukraine’s self-defence, resilience and deterrence of future Russian aggression. In 2022, the Government of Denmark provided Ukraine with EUR 565 million in military support. In continuance, Denmark’s Ukraine Fund of a total of EUR 8.5 billion covers ongoing support in 2023-2028. In 2024, the military support will amount to at least EUR 1.8 billion. Denmark’s Ukraine Fund serves as the comprehensive framework for the long-term military and civilian support.

European and Euro-Atlantic Integration

12. Ukraine commits to implement reforms as defined by the EU, IMF and NATO covering, inter alia, governance, transparency, anti-corruption and democratic control over the security and defence forces. Ukraine’s implementation of these reforms is essential for its EU and NATO aspirations.

13. The Participants reaffirm that Ukraine is integral to Euro-Atlantic and global security. Denmark is dedicated to supporting Ukraine’s reform efforts on its path towards future NATO membership by, but not limited to, advancing practical and political cooperation through NATO’s Comprehensive Assistance Package, Ukraine’s adapted Annual National Programme and the newly established NATO-Ukraine Council. Denmark recalls that Ukraine belongs in the Euro-Atlantic family and will become a member of NATO.

14. The Participants reaffirm that Ukraine is part of the European family and has a future within the EU. Denmark acknowledges Ukraine’s efforts to strive for the implementation of necessary reforms under extremely challenging circumstances. The Participants recall the merit-based nature of the EU accession process. They reaffirm their commitment to work constructively on Ukraine’s progressive integration towards the Union, with a view to its future Union membership. Denmark, in cooperation with the EU and its Member States, will continue to support Ukraine in its reforms and accession path.

Comprehensive and long-term support to Ukraine’s defence, resilience and deterrence of future Russian aggression

15. This Agreement on security commitments will cover ongoing, scheduled and future contributions to Ukraine’s defence, resilience and future deterrence of Russian aggression. The security commitments will be funded by multiannual financing towards core military support complemented by wider elements of civilian support.

Deterrence and defence

16. Since the start of Russia’s full-scale war of aggression in 2022, Denmark has been amongst the most significant contributors of military support to Ukraine and has pledged to sustain this level of support. Furthermore, Denmark has spearheaded efforts to form an international coalition providing Ukraine with a fighter jet capability. Denmark will continue the efforts to improve the capability of the security and defence forces of Ukraine to defend itself against Russian aggression as well as to deter further aggression in the future, and to enhance interoperability with NATO standards.

17. Ukraine will ensure that Danish military assistance is used exclusively for Ukraine’s self-defence and is to be used by the security and defence forces of Ukraine against military objectives in accordance with international law, including international humanitarian law. The Participants will cooperate to prevent the diversion and the illegal circulation of military material provided to Ukraine.

18. Denmark’s support will include short-term military needs as well as the long-term capacity building of Ukraine’s Future Force. This will be achieved through the provision of continuous military support across different domains in coordination and cooperation with the relevant international partners and institutions, focusing on a) air force and air defence; b) maritime security; c) demining: d) technology and drones, as well as e) other key capabilities and urgent needs of Ukraine.

a) Air Force and Air Defence

Denmark will support efforts to build and strengthen Ukraine’s Air Force and air defence as a co-lead of the Air Force Capability Coalition (AFCC) and a participant of the Capability Coalition of Integrated Air and Missile Defence. More specifically, Denmark will support efforts in securing a holistic F-16 capacity through the AFCC, including with the donation of fighter jets, ammunition, simulators and training as well as contributing to the long-term maintenance of the fighter jets and the establishment of the proper facilities in Ukraine.

b) Maritime Security

Denmark will contribute to the capacity building of Ukraine’s maritime domain through cooperation with Allies and partners. The development of Ukraine’s maritime fleet will be achieved through capacity building efforts, industrial cooperation and training efforts as well as donations.

c) Demining

Denmark will continue demining efforts in Ukraine by providing training efforts, donations of equipment and support in developing and sustaining international demining standards. This support will be coordinated with Allies and partners.

d) Technology and Drones

Denmark will provide Ukraine with high-tech military donations, such as drones, communications equipment, radars and detection equipment along with the necessary training in utilisation. This support will be facilitated through long-term defence industry cooperation where focus will also be placed on mutual industrial development and knowledge sharing.

e) Other key capabilities and urgent needs

Denmark commits to continuing its significant military support relative to size. Denmark will continue to provide Ukraine with military donations and keep enhancing training efforts and concepts to meet urgent needs on the battlefield. These efforts are essential in order to fully restore Ukraine’s territorial integrity within its internationally recognised borders as of 1991.

19. Danish military support will facilitate a modernisation of the security and defence forces of Ukraine and a greater degree of interoperability with the security and defence forces of Ukraine with NATO standards and other relevant international organisations. This includes, inter alia, the provision of equipment, training (including train-the-trainer programmes) and infrastructure required for greater NATO interoperability and compatibility, as well as support to the development of Ukrainian Future Force design.

20. Denmark will continue to channel military support to Ukraine through multilateral instruments, including NATO’s Ukraine Comprehensive Assistance Package (UCAP) and EU’s European Peace Facility (EPF).

Defence Industry cooperation

21. Denmark will contribute to the development of Ukraine’s defence industrial base and identify opportunities for closer partnerships. Special attention will be given to the preservation of Ukraine’s military edge necessary for the self-defence against Russia’s full-scale war of aggression. The Participants will together identify priority investment areas, strengthen efforts to reduce existing barriers for cooperation, eliminate bottlenecks in the supply chain of defence materials, as well as encourage and support investments.

22. Ukraine and Denmark will cooperate on developing defence technologies, especially in the area of new technologies. Denmark will support development of Ukraine’s defence industry in particular through investments, information exchange, joint R&D as well as production.

23. The Participants will work to identify funding sources required to enable development of Ukraine’s defence industrial base, including investment and financial assistance, in particular in the time of war and post-war recovery.

24. Denmark will, where possible, support Ukraine’s efforts to integrate its defence industry into NATO and EU defence and security frameworks.

25. The Participants will work together to facilitate the protection of any transferred technologies and intellectual property rights

Intelligence and security cooperation

26. The Participants will enhance the cooperation in the field of intelligence and security in accordance with applicable legal requirements and possibilities. This will be achieved through, but not limited to, intelligence sharing and cooperation including in the fields of counter-intelligence and training.

27. The Participants will seek to conclude a General Security of Information Agreement (GSOIA) between their respective countries that will facilitate greater information sharing between various Ukrainian and Danish government agencies.

Cyber security and countering disinformation

28. The Participants will cooperate to enable Ukraine to prevent, detect and counter Russian cyber aggression, cyber espionage and hybrid warfare, including through increased cooperation on cyber diplomacy, providing technical assistance to Ukraine, as well as to enhance its cyber resilience.

29. The Participants will continue cooperation in the field of countering Russian and any other actor’s disinformation. They will jointly promote the development of Ukraine’s capabilities to counter hybrid threats, Russian and any other malign propaganda and disinformation campaigns affecting national security and work for organizing joint education and training programmes for experts.

Reconstruction and resilience

30. Since the beginning of Russia’s full-scale war of aggression, Denmark has provided civilian support for Ukraine’s resilience, reconstruction and relief of the war-affected population. This Agreement on security commitments acknowledges and includes a continuation of such efforts with multi-year funding for civilian assistance and business development to support Ukraine’s recovery.

31. Denmark commits to supporting reconstruction and resilience geared towards addressing urgent needs and creating the foundation for sustainable development. Denmark’s commitment to support the reconstruction of Ukraine will continue to be agile and responsive. Ukraine and Denmark concur that the recovery process needs to be transparent and accountable to the people of Ukraine and the international community.

32. Energy supply security and protection of critical infrastructure remains crucial for Ukraine’s resilience. In line with Denmark’s co-lead of the Ukrainian Peace Formula working group on Energy Security, and building upon the current cooperation and support for Ukraine’s energy infrastructure, Denmark will continue to provide long-term support to Ukraine’s overall energy sector with a special focus on green energy transition.

33. The commitments will also involve the continuation of Denmark’s partnership with the city of Mykolaiv and Mykolaiv Region. Denmark will actively engage with the city and the region to support their reconstruction, resilience and reforms.

34. Denmark will continue to work actively within the EU to ensure macro-financial support and to further international coordination. Denmark will support private sector cooperation including the established Ukraine-facility with loan­ and guarantee schemes under the Danish Export and Credit Fund (EIFO).

35. Since the start of Russia’s full-scale war of aggression in 2022, Denmark has provided substantial support to humanitarian mine action in Ukraine. Russia’s massive contamination of Ukrainian soil through ammunition, mines and other explosives remnants not only threatens protection of civilians, but also food security as well as undermines economic sustainability. Given the scale of the challenge, Denmark aims to continue providing funding to humanitarian demining efforts alongside partners.

36. Denmark will provide technical support for strategic sector partnerships like the energy program, UDEPP, the decentralisation program, U-lead, and municipal “twinning”, through knowledge exchange and capacity development of authorities and civil society organisations. Denmark’s commitments to Ukraine may also include specific initiatives for improving mental health of and psychosocial support for the Ukrainian society.

Political support

37. Ukraine and Denmark will work together for a just and lasting peace with broad global support, based on the Ukrainian Peace Formula. Denmark will continue its diplomatic efforts to promote Ukrainian Peace Formula.


38. The Participants will continue working to ensure that the costs to Russia for its aggression continue to rise, including through sanctions and export controls. The Participants recognise the value of sanctions in restricting Russia’s access to the finance, goods, technology and services it is utilising in its war of aggression, in bearing down on Russia’s revenue streams, and to deter future attacks.

39. Denmark will work for the strongest possible sanctions on Russia, while ensuring their effectiveness. Denmark will continue to take determined action through the EU to uphold sanction pressure on Russia and to tackle all forms of sanctions circumvention as long as Russia’s war of aggression against Ukraine continues and Ukraine’s territorial integrity is not restored.

40. Ukraine and Denmark will provide each other with up-to-date information on the grounds for sanctions and other relevant information, in compliance with relevant obligations.

Commitment to implement reforms

41. Denmark recognises the significant progress Ukraine has made in implementing reforms. Ukraine reiterates its continued commitment to implementing reforms including in the areas of governance, anti­corruption and defence and security. Ukraine commits to continue implementing reforms to support and protect Ukraine’s democracy and rule of law.

42. Denmark will provide technical and financial resources to support Ukraine’s reform path. This involves supporting Ukraine’s reform process on the path towards future membership of EU and NATO. In particular, Denmark will support EU’s anti­corruption initiative (EUACI) to give national anti-corruption stakeholders the tools and technical assistance to counter corruption.

43. Ukraine commits to further advancing reforms improving governance through strengthening institutional controls, improving resilience and building a just and inclusive society. Ukraine will actively work for promoting public trust in the rule of law and strengthening of the independence of the judiciary.

44. Ukraine commits to advancing anti-corruption efforts at all levels of society across the public sector, the private sector and civil society. This includes ensuring sufficient resources for the independent anti-corruption institutions for the benefit of society as a whole.

45. Ukraine commits to advancing and developing democratic control and oversight with its security and defence forces and within the wider security and defence sector by focusing on further improving oversight, accountability and transparency across its security institutions essential for building their legitimacy, efficiency and accountability.

Promoting accountability

46. The Participants reaffirm their commitment to ensuring accountability for international crimes committed in Ukraine, including the crime of aggression. The Participants will continue their work, including in the Core Group, to establish a tribunal to ensure accountability for the crime of aggression against Ukraine.

47. The Participants will continue to promote effective domestic investigation and prosecution of international crimes within Ukraine and will continue to support the work of the International Criminal Court.

48. The Participants reaffirm that the Russian Federation is to be held accountable for the damages inflicted on Ukrainian territory. Russian sovereign assets should remain immobilised until the Russian Federation has paid for the damage it has caused to Ukraine. Denmark, working with its partners in the EU, will continue to pursue all lawful routes through which revenues from Russian assets can be used to support Ukraine, in accordance with European and international law.

49. As a priority, the Participants will continue to work together along with like-minded partners towards the establishment of a compensation mechanism to provide compensation for damage, loss or injury caused by Russia's aggression, as envisaged by the Statute of the Register of Damage Caused by the Aggression of the Russian Federation against Ukraine adopted by the Resolution of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe CM/Res(2023)3. In this regard, the Participants will explore appropriate options for the financing of a compensation mechanism consistent with international law in order to provide prompt and adequate compensation to victims of aggression.

Cooperation in the event of a future armed attack

50. In the event of future Russian armed attack against Ukraine, at the request of either Participant, the Participants will consult within 24 hours, bilaterally or via other channels they both deem suitable, in order to determine appropriate next steps.

51. Denmark, in accordance with its respective legal and constitutional requirements, will provide swift and sustained security assistance, modern military equipment across land, sea and air domains, and economic assistance, to impose economic and other costs on Russia, and to consult on Ukraine’s needs as it exercises its right of self-defence enshrined in Article 51 of the UN Charter.

52. In order to ensure the widest and most effective collective response to future armed attacks, the Participants may amend these provisions in order to align with any mechanism that they may subsequently agree with their other international partners, including the participants of the G7 Declaration.

Consultation, coordination and review

53. In order to facilitate the implementation of this Agreement on security commitments and to ensure an ongoing strategic dialogue, appropriate consultation structures between the Participants will be arranged.

54. The Participants will, if necessary, designate authorised bodies for the development and implementation of bilateral agreements in accordance with the areas of cooperation specified in this Agreement. 

55. The security commitments are subject to ongoing review in order to monitor progress on implementation with a special focus on ensuring adherence to accountability and transparency.

Final Provisions

56. This Agreement may be amended and supplemented, including by adding annexes thereto, at any time by the written consent of the Participants.

57. Any disputes between the Participants arising out of the interpretation and/or implementation of this Agreement will be settled amicably through negotiation or consultation between the Participants.

58. This Agreement will come into effect upon signatory of the Participants, and is valid for ten years from the date of its signature.

59. The Participants can jointly decide to extend this Agreement through notification no later than 6 months prior to the lapse of the ten-year period.

60. At the same time and in accordance with the G7 Declaration, the Participants share the opinion that this Agreement is without prejudice to Ukraine pursuing a pathway toward future membership in the Euro-Atlantic Community.

61. In the event that Ukraine becomes a member of NATO before the expiry of this Agreement, the participants will decide on its future status.

62. This Agreement may be terminated by either Participant by giving written notice to the other Participant. This Agreement will be terminated 6 months from the date of receipt of such notice. The termination will not affect the implementation of ongoing activities or projects, which have been decided prior to the date of its termination, unless the Participants decide otherwise.

Signed in Lviv on 23 February 2024, in duplicate, in the English and Ukrainian languages, the English version of which shall prevail in the event of any discrepancy.

For Ukraine: President Volodymyr Zelensky

For Denmark: Prime Minister Mette Frederiksen 

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